Database Management Basics

Database management is a system to manage information that is essential to an organization’s business operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to applications and users, editing it as needed and monitoring changes to data and preventing data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is a part of a company’s informational infrastructure which aids in decision making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were created in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS), which allowed huge amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of purposes. From calculating inventory, to supporting complicated financial accounting functions, and human resource functions.

A database consists of tables that are organized according to a particular scheme, such as one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a variety of fields, also known as attributes, that represent facts about the entities that comprise the data. Relational models, developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most used database type in the present. This design is based on normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It is also easier to update data since it does not require changing certain sections of the database.

Most DBMSs can support multiple types of databases, offering internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is concerned with cost, scalability, and other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It can include a combination of different external views (based on the different data models) and may also include virtual tables that are computed from generic data in order to improve performance.